The territory of Bulgaria has been inhabited since the earliest historical times – the Stone Age and the Copper Stone Age. Evidence of this are the numerous local and mounds. Among these are Karanovska Neolithic mound and home from VI millennium. BCE. Stara Zagora. From this time dates the oldest gold treasure in the world found near Varna.
During the Bronze Age the Thracians settled here who have left us a rich cultural heritage – tombs, temples and treasures. It is believed that the mythical musician Orpheus lived in the Rhodope Mountains, and rebellious Spartacus was born near the present town of Sandanski.
When at the end of the first century before Christ. Bulgarian lands enter the territory of the Roman Empire began large-new cities appear in place of the old Thracian settlements. From this period are preserved many architectural and archaeological monuments – ancient theater and Roman Stadium in Plovdiv, the remains of Roman cities Oescus, Nove, Nicopolis ad Istrum Nicopolis ad Nestrum, Augusta Traiana, Abritus Deultum and others. After the collapse of the Roman Empire Bulgarian lands included within the boundaries of Byzantium.
In the second half of VII. Territory of modern northeastern Bulgaria Bulgars settled that teaming up with the Slavs and formed the Bulgarian State, recognized by Byzantium in 681 head of state stands driver Khan Asparuh, and was named the capital city Pliska. From this period of history remain the ruins of the old capital, which today can be seen in the scale of construction and magnificent architecture.
Sometime between the founding of Bulgaria and the adoption of Christianity (mid-ninth century) has created one of the most magnificent monuments – Madara Horseman. The unique rock relief carved 23 meters high near the pagan capital Pliska.
In 864, during the reign of Prince Boris I Mihail (852-889) Bulgaria adopted Christianity as the official religion. This is the ethnic differences between Bulgarians and Slavs and started building a unified Bulgarian nation.
At the end of the ninth century. Slavic brothers Cyril (Constantine the Philosopher) and Methodius created and distributed alphabet (known as the Cyrillic alphabet). Their disciples Kliment and Naum came to Bulgaria, where they were warmly welcomed and found good conditions for work. They develop a rich educational and literary activities. From Bulgaria the Cyrillic script spread to other Slavic countries, such as Serbia and Russia. Ohrid and Pliska, and later the new capital Preslav became centers of Bulgarian and Slavic culture.
Reign of Tsar Simeon I (893-927 years) is known as the “Golden Age of Bulgarian culture” and the country’s borders at that time reached the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Aegean Sea. Simeon moved the capital of the country of pagan Pliska to Preslav Christian, considered one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. And today there are remains of palaces, churches and public buildings in the second Bulgarian capital.
In 1018, after prolonged wars, Bulgaria was conquered by Byzantium. During the 1186 uprising led by the brothers Asen and Peter, the domination of Byzantium. Based Second Bulgarian Empire, and capital is Tarnovo.Mirniyat agreement between Bulgaria and Byzantium Byzantium which recognizes Second Bulgarian Kingdom was signed in Lovech fortress. The remains of the fortress, studied and restored today on the hill above the town of Hissar Lovech.
Veliko Tarnovo keeps most monuments from the time of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom. Tsarevets Hill in the city today can be seen magnificent restored fortress walls and towers. You were in the palace, many residential and commercial buildings, water reservoirs. By Carevec is another historic hill – Trapezitza. Its historical wealth is large and still not fully revealed. Here have focused Christian churches of the old capital. Excavations on the hill still come to light new and interesting discoveries. Among the most interesting sights are the temples of Tarnovo “St.. Forty Martyrs “,” Sv. George “Sv. Demetrios”, “Sv. St.. Peter and Paul “audiovisual spectacle” Sound and Light “, which is held the fort” Tsarevets “as well as numerous museums, telling about the ancient history of the old town.
Bulgaria’s former power was restored during the reign of the smallest brother of Asen and Peter – Tsar Kaloyan (reigned 1197-1207) and at the time of Tsar Ivan Asen II (1218 -1241) Second Bulgarian Kingdom reached its zenith – political hegemony in Southeast Europe, spread to the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Adriatic Sea, the economy and culture. Since that time have been preserved frescoes in the Boyana Church, churches in Veliko Tarnovo, Zemen Monastery Ivanovo rock churches, fortress, etc..
In 1396 the country was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. After five centuries of Ottoman rule, during which the only spiritual centers that preserve Bulgarian culture and spirit are Orthodox monasteries. Many of them are based before the fall of Bulgaria under Ottoman rule and in this dark period of five centuries have repeatedly destroyed and renovated to continue his spiritual work today.
At the end of the XVIII century. – Beginning of XIX century. Bulgarian Revival began when the Bulgarian nation awakens and matures organized struggle against the Ottoman Empire. During this period the Bulgarian merchants and craftsmen establish trade links with the whole of Europe, thanks to which the Bulgarian lands entering innovations both in the life and culture, and in education and architecture. From this era are preserved magnificent buildings. Objectives villages bearing the spirit of the Renaissance, declared architectural reserves – Kovachevica, wide bow, Borovets, Koprivshtitsa and others. Unique Renaissance architecture found its peak in Plovdiv houses whose architectural style is called “Bulgarian Baroque”.
In 1876 April Uprising broke out – the biggest and most organized attempt at liberation from Ottoman domination. The first shot of the uprising is a bridge “First Shot” in the city. Koprivshtitsa.Vastanieto was suppressed with great brutality, but puts Bulgarian national question at the center of international politics.
In 1878, as a result of the Russo-Turkish War, Bulgarian state was restored. Today, the places where they led most memorable fights are built magnificent monuments – Shipka is the park museum “Shipka” and in Pleven – Panorama “Pleven Epic.”
Berlin Congress (1878) divided the former Bulgarian territories of three – the Principality of Bulgaria, led by Duke, Eastern Rumelia with a Christian governor appointed by the Sultan, and Thrace and Macedonia, which remained under the Ottoman Empire. For the first prince of the Principality of Bulgaria was elected Alexander I Battenberg. In 1879 in Turnovo was adopted the first Constitution of Bulgaria – one of the most democratic of its time. Today, the museum “Revival and Constituent Assembly” in Veliko Tarnovo is located in the building where the Tarnovo Constitution was adopted.
In 1885, the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia united. Today 6 September each year Bulgarians celebrate a compound of Bulgaria. Freedom to conquer Macedonia and 1903 broke Ilinden – uprising. In Petrova Niva, which hosted the Congress and decided to lift the uprising in 1903, has a museum telling the story of the uprising, a monument erected in honor of those who died and the temple.
In 1908 the Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand Saxe proclaimed independence from Turkey and proclaimed himself king of the Third Bulgarian Kingdom. In 1912 Bulgaria leads the Balkan War against Turkey, but after 1913 the former allies Serbia and Greece because of disagreements turn against Bulgaria, leading to Inter-war in which our country was defeated. As a result of this war, it is more detached territories inhabited by balgari.Namesata of Bulgaria in World War I on the side of the Central Powers ended with a national catastrophe. Neuilly Peace Treaty of 1919 imposed severe terms on Bulgaria – it lost much of their territory. The first half of the twentieth century. Was a period of rise of Bulgarian inonomika and culture. Then date one of the most magnificent architectural models in the country – the cathedral “Sv. Par. Nevsky “National Theatre” Ivan Vazov “and others.
In the early 40s Bulgaria a policy in the interests of Germany and the Axis powers. In 1941, Bulgaria declared war on the United States and Britain, but Bulgarian army is not involved in the fighting on the Eastern Front. Tsar Boris III supported the public pressure and prevents the deportation of about 50,000 Bulgarian Jews. In August 1943 Boris III died and the regency of the young Tsar Simeon II took over the governing of the country. On 5 September 1944, the Soviet Army entered Bulgaria and 9 September the government of the Fatherland Front led by Kimon Georgiev. In 1946 Bulgaria was proclaimed a People’s Republic. The royal family left the country. Bulgarian Communist Party came to power. The political parties are banned front, the economy and the banks were nationalized, the arable land forcibly organized in cooperatives. In the management of state consecutively changed Georgi Dimitrov, Vasil Kolarov, Valko Tchervenkov Anton Yugov and Todor Zhivkov.
At the end of 1989 beginning of the democratic changes in Bulgaria. Are held multiparty elections. A new constitution. Bulgaria took the road to democratic development and market economy. Since 1991 a member of the Council of Europe. In 2004 Bulgaria became a member of NATO.Ot January 1, 2007, after fulfilling the criteria for membership, Bulgaria became a full member of the European Union.